Lesson 2: iSCSI Storage
- iqn名稱 或 eui 名稱 + iSCSI alias + IP address
- software iSCSI
- VMkernel 模擬
- dependent hardware iSCSI
- 可以支援 一般網卡及iSCSI 功能
- 需要 ESXi 主機輔助
- A dependent hardware iSCSI initiator, or adapter, depends on VMware networking and on iSCSI configuration and management interfaces that are provided by VMware.
- independent hardware iSCSI
- VMkernel使用 iSCSI HBA driver
- An independent hardware iSCSI adapter handles all iSCSI and network processing and management for your ESXi host.
ESXi Network Configuration for IP Storage
Software initiator 設定步驟
- VMkernel port IP Address 設定
- Enable Software iSCSI initiator
- optional ( 如果 initiator 與 target 名稱不一樣開頭, 就要修改名稱 )
- Port binding ( 確認路由, 為了未來的 MultiPath )
- Discovery iSCSI target
- optional ( CHAP )
Creating Datastores and Discovering iSCSI Targets
The ESXi host supports two iSCSI target-discovery methods:
- Static discovery
- The initiator does not have to perform discovery. The initiator knows in advance all the targets that it will contact and uses their IP addresses and domain names to communicate with them.
- Dynamic discovery
- Also called SendTargets discovery. Each time the initiator contacts a specified iSCSI server, it sends the SendTargets request to the server.
- 透過 3260 port 來discovery
iSCSI Security: CHAP
ESXi supports the following CHAP authentication methods:
- Unidirectional: Also called one-way CHAP. The target authenticates the initiator, but the initiator does not authenticate the target. You must specify the CHAP secret so that your initiators can access the target.
- Bidirectional: Also called mutual CHAP. An additional level of security enables the initiator to authenticate the target. You must specify different target and initiator secrets.
- 預設 CHAP 不啟用
Software iSCSI only
- Bidirectional CHAP
- Per-target CHAP
Multipathing with iSCSI Storage
- 在ESXi 上面只能啟用一張 Software Initiator
Software or dependent hardware iSCSI:
- Use multiple NICs.
- Connect each NIC to a separate VMkernel port.
- Associate VMkernel ports with the iSCSI initiator.
- Use two or more hardware iSCSI adapters.
Lab 9: Accessing iSCSI Storage
- 新增 VMkernel Port Group
- 設定 iSCSI
Lesson 3: NFS Datastores
Configuring an NFS Datastore
- Create a VMkernel port:
- For better performance and security, separate it from the iSCSI network.
- Provide the following information:
- NFS version: v3 or v4.1
- NFS server names or IP addresses
- Folder on the NFS server, for example, /templates and /nfs_share
- Host to create the datastore on
- Whether to mount the NFS file system read-only ( 決定掛載方式, rw or ro )
- Datastore name
- Authentication parameters
NFS v3 and NFS v4.1
- ESXi managed multipathing
- AUTH_SYS (root) authentication
- VMware proprietary file locking
- Client-side error tracking
- Native multipathing and session trunking
- Optional Kerberos authentication
- Built-in file locking
- Server-side error tracking
NFS Version Compatibility with Other vSphere Technologies
- As of the release of vSphere 6, NFS v4.1 is not compatible with VMware vSphere Storage DRS, vSphere Storage I/O Control, VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager, and Virtual Volumes, because of server protocol locking.
NFS Dual Stack Not Supported
NFS v3 locking is not compatible with NFS v4.1:
- NFS v3 uses proprietary client-side cooperative locking. NFS v4.1 uses server- side locking.
- Configure an NFS array to allow only one NFS protocol.
- Use either NFS v3 or NFS v4.1 to mount the same NFS share across all ESXi hosts.
- Mounting an NFS share as NFS v3 on one ESXi host and as NFS v4.1 on another ESXi host can lead to data corruption.
Multipathing and NFS Storage
One recommended configuration for NFS multipathing:
- Configure one VMkernel port.
- Use adapters attached to the same physical switch to configure NIC teaming.
- Configure the NFS server with multiple IP addresses:
- IP addresses can be on the same subnet.
- To use multiple links, configure NIC teams with the IP hash load- balancing policy.
Lab 10: Accessing NFS Storage
- 建立 NFS datastore
-- Class break --
Lesson 4: VMFS Datastores
Using VMFS Datastores with ESXi Hosts
Use VMFS datastores whenever possible:
- VMFS is optimized for storing and accessing large files.
- A VMFS datastore can have a maximum volume size of 64 TB.
Use RDMs if the following conditions are true of your virtual machine:
- It is taking storage array-level snapshots.
- It is clustered to a physical machine.
- It has large amounts of data that you do not want to convert into a virtual disk.
NFS not support
- Boot from SAN
Managing Overcommitted Datastores
A datastore becomes overcommitted when the total provisioned space of thin-provisioned disks is greater than the size of the datastore.
Actively monitor your datastore capacity:
- Alarms assist through notifications:
- Datastore disk overallocation ( 監控 overallocation 百分比, 例如 300% )
- Virtual machine disk usage
Actively manage your datastore capacity:
- Increase the datastore capacity when necessary.
- Use VMware vSphere Storage vMotion to mitigate space usage problems on a particular datastore.
- 這個部分可以在 Alarms 新增 Datastore disk provisioned 可以監控 overcommitted 狀況
- 觀察的話, 透過 Datastore 內的 Monitor -- > Performance -- > Space in GB 去看使用狀況
Increasing the Size of a VMFS Datastore
Ways to dynamically increase the size of a VMFS datastore:
- Add an extent (LUN). (將兩個 LUN 合併)
- Expand the datastore within its extent. ( 垂直擴充1個 LUN )
You can expand but you can not shrink a VMFS datastore.
Deleting or Unmounting a VMFS Datastore
Before you unmount a VMFS datastore, use the vSphere Web Client to verify the following:
- No virtual machines reside on the datastore.
- The datastore is not part of a datastore cluster (not discussed in this course).
- The datastore is not managed by vSphere Storage DRS.
- Storage I/O Control is disabled.
- The datastore is not used for vSphere HA heartbeat.
vSphere 6 offers native path selection, load-balancing, and failover mechanisms.
An ESXi host can be attached to storage arrays with a storage processor configuration of:
Configuring Storage Load Balancing
- Round Robin
- MRU ( Most Recently Used)常用 Active – passive(Standby) storage device ( 故障修復之後不會切換回來 )
- Fixed 固定 ( Failback ) Active – Active storage device ( 故障修復之後會切換回來 )
-- 上午課程結束 --
Lab 11: Managing VMFS Datastores
- Rename VMFS Datastore
- 建立 VMFS Datastore
- Expend VMFS Datastore
- Remove a VMFS Datastore
- Extend VMFS Datastore
Lesson 5: Virtual SAN Datastores
About Virtual SAN
VSA ( vSphere Storage Appliance )
- 5.0 版本有
- 需要 2 到 3 台 host
VSAN ( vSphere virtual SAN )
- 3 - 64 台Host
- 要有 SSD + HD
Virtual SAN Requirements
- 1GB or 10GB
- SAS/SATA: RAID controller must work in passthrough or HBA mode
- PCI/SAS/SATA SSD
- At least 1 of each
- PCI/SAS/SATA HD/SSD
- At least 1 of each
Using Virtual SAN
- VM Storage Policies are what you configure so that a virtual machine can take advantage of Virtual SAN storage.( 設定Datastore 關聯性 )
- Capabilities define the capacity, performance, and availability characteristics of the underlying physical storage.
vSphere Storage API
- VASA (vStorage API for Storage Awareness)
- VAAI ( vStorage APIs for Array Integration )
- VADP ( vStorage APIs for Data Protection )
Lesson 6: Virtual Volumes
- The protocol endpoint is set up by the storage administrator.
- The protocol endpoint is part of the physical storage fabric. It is treated like a LUN.
- The protocol endpoint supports typical SCSI and NFS commands.
- Virtual volumes are bound and unbound to a protocol endpoint: ESXi or VMware vCenter Server initiates the bind and unbind operation
In vCenter Server, the storage containers are represented by virtual datastores:
- A storage container is configured by the storage administrator.
- A storage container is a logical grouping of virtual volumes.
- A storage containers capacity is limited only by the hardware capacity.
- You must set up at least one storage container per storage system. You can have multiple storage containers per array.
- You assign capabilities to storage containers.
-- Class break --
** MODULE 7 Virtual Machine Management **
Lesson 1: Creating Templates and Clones
Creating a Template
- Clone to Template
- 從VM 複製成Template
- VM 不必要關機
- Convert to Template
- Clone a template:
- Used to create a new template based on one that existed previously.
Template 與 VM 的差異
- vmtx 與 vmx
Deploying a Virtual Machine from a Template
- To deploy a virtual machine, you must provide such information as the virtual machine name, inventory location, host, datastore, and guest operating system customization data. ( 呼叫 sysprep 或是其他的程式來客製化 VM )
Updating a Template
Update a template to include new patches, make system changes, and install new applications:
1.Convert the template to a virtual machine.
2.Place the virtual machine on an isolated network to prevent user access.
3.Make appropriate changes to the virtual machine.
4.Convert the virtual machine to a template.
將範本轉成VM 然後進行變更( 更新 ), 再轉回範本
Cloning a Virtual Machine
- 應用在 Lab 環境或是 patch 測試
Customizing the Guest Operating System
- 使用 Microsoft Sysprep
- 設定 customizing
- Windows 7 以後已經內建 sysprep, 所以應該不用特別將 sysprep tool 複製到vCenter
Lab 12: Using Templates and Clones
- Create Customization Specification
- Clone a Powered-On Virtual Machine
Lesson 2: Modifying Virtual Machines
CPU and memory can also be added while the virtual machine is powered on. This feature is called the CPU hot-plug and memory hot-add option. These options are disabled by default. To use these hot-plug features:
- You must install VMware Tools.
- The virtual machine must use hardware version 7 or later.
- The guest operating system in the virtual machine must support CPU and memory hot-plug features.
- The hot-plug options must be enabled in the VM Options tab of the Edit Settings dialog box.
Creating an RDM
An RDM supports two compatibility modes:
- Physical compatibility (pass-through) mode: Allows the guest operating system to access the hardware directly.
- Virtual compatibility mode: Allows the virtual machine to use VMware snapshots and other advanced features.
Inflating a Thin-Provisioned Disk
- 把 Thin Provision 變成 thick, eager-zeroed 格式
- VM 必須關機
- 在VM的 .vmdk檔案上面按滑鼠右鍵, 選擇 Inflate
Lab 13: Modifying Virtual Machines
- 增加 VMDK 大小
- Rename VM
- 新增/移除 Raw LUN
- Expend a Thin-Provisioned Virtual Disk
-- Class End --